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England Premier league
The Premier League (often referred to as English Premier League or EPL outside England) is the highest level of English football league system. It is contested by 20 clubs and maintains a promotion and relegation system with the English Football League (EFL). Relegation means drop to Championship second highest football league in England.
The Premier League is a society in which the member clubs act as shareholders. The seasons last from August to May, with each team playing 38 games (with all 19 other teams playing both at home and away). Most games are played on Saturday and Sunday afternoons. In the Premier League, 47 English and 2 Welsh clubs have been represented since its inception, making it a cross-border league.
The competition was held on February 20, 1992 as the FA Premier League, after the clubs of the Football League First Division had decided to break away from the Football League founded in 1888 and to benefit from a lucrative agreement on television rights. The business had an annual value of GBP 1 billion from 2013 to 2014, with Sky and BT Group securing domestic rights to broadcast 116 and 38 games, respectively. The league generates national and international TV rights amounting to 2.2 billion euros per year. Clubs were allocated 2.4 billion GBP in central payments in 2016-17. A further £ 343 million went to solidarity payments to English Football League (EFL) clubs.
The Premier League is the most watched sports league in the world and is broadcast in 212 territories to 643 million households and a potential television audience of 4.7 billion people. In the 2018/19 season, the average participation in games in the Premier League was 38,181, after 43,500 in the Bundesliga in second place, while the total participation of all games with 14,508,981 was the highest of all leagues. Most stadium occupancies are almost used up. The Premier League ranks second in the UEFA league coefficients, based on performances in European competitions over the last five seasons starting in 2018.
Forty-nine clubs have applied since the founding of the Premier League in 1992. Six of them have since won the title: Manchester United (13), Chelsea (5), Manchester City (4), Arsenal (3), Blackburn Rovers (1) and Leicester City (1). Most points in a Premier League season were scored by Manchester City in 2017-18 with 100 points.
Despite significant European successes in the 1970s and early 1980s, the late 1980s marked a low point for English football. After the disaster at the Heysel Stadium in 1985, the stadiums collapsed, the fans suffered from poor facilities, hooliganism was widespread, and English clubs were excluded from European competition for five years. The Football League First Division, the highest level of English football since 1888, was behind leagues such as Italy's Serie A and Spain's LaLiga in attendance and revenue, and several English top players were drawn abroad.
In the 90s, the downward trend began to reverse. England reached the semi-finals at the 1990 FIFA World Cup. UEFA, the European Football Association, overturned the 1990 ban on English clubs participating in European competitions. Manchester United lifted the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup in 1991 After the Hillsborough disaster, all-star stadiums were built in January 1990.
In the 1980s, large British clubs began to turn into business enterprises and apply commercial principles to club management to maximize revenue. Manchester United's Martin Edwards, Tottenham Hotspur's Irving Scholar and Arsenal's David Dein were among the leading players in this transformation. The commercial imperative made top clubs strive to increase their power and revenue. The clubs of Division 1 threatened to break away from the Football League. In this way, they managed to increase their voting rights and achieve more favorable financial arrangements by having a 50% share of all television and sponsorship revenues in 1986. They demanded that television companies pay more for football match coverage, and television revenues grew in importance.
The Football League received £ 6.3 million in 1986 for a two-year agreement, but by 1988 the price had risen to £ 44 million over four years in a four-year ITV agreement, with leading clubs taking 75% of the money. According to Scholar, who was involved in the negotiations on television contracts, each club of the First Division received only about £ 25,000 a year from television rights before 1986, which increased from around £ 50,000 in the 1986 negotiations to £ 600,000 in 1988. The 1988 negotiations were conducted under the threat that ten clubs had resigned to form a "super league," but they were eventually persuaded to stay with the top clubs that took the lion's share of the deal. The negotiations also convinced the bigger clubs that they had to take the entire First Division with them to get enough votes instead of forming a smaller "Super League". At the beginning of the nineties, the big clubs thought again about splitting up. Especially now that they had to finance the stadium upgrade costs, as suggested in the Taylor report.
The Premier League maintains two trophies - the real trophy (held by the reigning champions) and a substitute replica. In the event that two clubs on the last day of the season could win the league, two trophies will be played. In the rare event that more than two clubs compete for the title on the final day, a replica won by a previous club will be used. The current Premier League trophy was created by Royal Jewelers Asprey of London. It consists of a trophy with a golden crown and a malachite base. The base weighs 15 kg and the trophy 10 kg. The trophy and pedestal are 76 cm high, 43 cm wide and 25 cm deep.
Its main body is made of solid sterling silver and gilded silver, while its base is made of malachite, a semi-precious stone. The base is encircled by a silver band with the names of the winning titles listed. The green color of malachite also stands for the green playing field. The design of the trophy is based on the heraldry of the Three Lions, which is associated with English football. Two of the lions are above the handles on either side of the trophy - the third is symbolized by the captain of the title winning team, who lifts the trophy and their gold crown over his head at the end of the season. The bands that drape the handles are displayed in the team colors of the league champions this year. In 2004, a special gold version of the trophy was commissioned to commemorate Arsenal's title win without a single defeat.
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