The decision to establish the league as the second football stage in West Germany was met in May 1973. The league went into operation in August 1974, then with two divisions of 20 clubs. In 1981 it was reduced to a single division. From the 1991/92 season clubs from the GDR participated in the league and extended it briefly back to two divisions. At the end of this season, it returned to a one-league format and has since 18 clubs as a strength. Two clubs from the 2nd Bundesliga are promoted directly to the Bundesliga, a third club was determined by playful investigation. from 1974 to 1991 and again since 2008. Between 1991 and 2008, the third-placed club in the league was promoted directly. The lowest clubs of the league descend into the third division, which was the league from 1974 to 1994, from 1994 to 2008 the regional league and since 2008 the 3rd league. The number of relegated people has fluctuated over the years. Since 2008, two clubs drop directly, while the third-last team has the opportunity to defend their league seat in play-offs against the third-placed team in the third league.
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The 1992/93 season was with 24 teams that competed in a single league and in which each club played 46 games, of great importance. From then until 2008, three clubs were promoted directly, with the play-offs being abolished. The SC Freiburg won for the first time the league and the rise. Behind them, the MSV Duisburg returned to the Bundesliga, while the third-placed VfB Leipzig as the first former East German club deserved promotion to the 2nd Bundesliga. Seven clubs left the league to reduce their strength from the following season their strength back to 20 clubs. Of these were Eintracht Braunschweig, Fortuna Dusseldorf and the SV Darmstadt 98 former Bundesliga. The following season, there were changes again, as it was the last with 20 clubs. Risen were the VfL Bochum, Bayer Uerdingen and 1860 Munich, who had just won promotion from the third division in the previous year and returned for the first time since 1981 back in the Bundesliga. At the end there were five clubs, including four relegated and the fifth, Carl Zeiss Jena, from the GDR.
The league below the 2nd Bundesliga was fundamentally changed in 1994, and the Oberligas were replaced by the new Regionalligas, which made possible for the first time since 1980 the direct promotion to the 2nd Bundesliga. The league itself has now been upgraded to 18 clubs with no play-offs, three promoted and four relegation teams, a system that was to be maintained until 2008 when the play-offs were re-launched. Hansa Rostock won in 1995 for the first time the 2nd Bundesliga and the FC St. Pauli and Fortuna Dusseldorf joined the Bundesliga. In the relegation zone, FSV Frankfurt prevailed with only three wins against the two teams Saarland FC Homburg and 1. FC Saarbrücken. The latter had to withdraw his license despite the seventh place and thus saved the FSV Zwickau from relegation.
In December 2016, it was announced that for the first time, the 2. Bundesliga would be given its own logo, taking effect at the start of the 2017–18 season. Previously, the 2. Bundesliga had borrowed the Bundesliga logo for promotional and media purposes. The 2. Bundesliga gained its own logo to "strengthen the profile of the competition" and to better identify the league with fans, the media, and sponsors.
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